Catatonic schizophrenia refers to some of the symptoms that may occur in some patients with schizophrenia. This can include periods where the person rarely walks and does not respond to instructions.
On the other end of the spectrum, individuals may exhibit motor activity that is considered “excessive” and “weird”, such as echolalia (sound imitation) or ecopraxia (movement imitation). This is called catatonic excitement.
Here we discuss about the symptoms of catatonic schizophrenia,causes, diagnosis, and how it is treated.
Quick information about the Disease
Here are some key points about catatonic schizophrenia. More detailed and helpful information is in the main article.
- Catatonia occurs only in some people with schizophrenia
- Symptoms may include hyperactivity and reversal of activity
- The risk factors for this are as same as schizophrenia.
- There are now several effective treatments for the symptoms of schizophrenia
Symptoms of the catatonic schizophrenia.
Modern medicine is effective in managing catatonic schizophrenia.
Catatonic schizophrenia is much rarer than before for advanced treatment. Catatonic states are now more prevalent in mental illnesses other than schizophrenia, such as neurodevelopmental (a condition that develops in children during the development of the nervous system), psychotic bipolar disorder, or depressive disorder.
Individuals with catatonia may experience a decrease and reversal in excessive motor activity.
Modern treatment can easily manage patients schizophrenia for having a happy and healthy life.
The clinical picture of Catatonia is affected by at least three of the following symptoms:
Up Fool – No psychomotor activity, no interaction with the environment
Catalepsy – includes abnormal posture
Ax Wax Flexibility – If a tester keeps the patient’s hand in one position, they will maintain this position until it is moved again.
Mutism – Verbal reactions are limited
Negativity – little or no response to instruction or external stimuli
Posturing – actively keeping a posture against gravity
Mannerism – Performing strange, exaggerated actions
Stereotype – repetitive movement without an apparent cause
Movement – for some unknown reason
Cho Ecolalia – mimicking another person’s speech
Ch Ecopraxia – mimicking another person’s movements
Without proper treatment, a catatonic episode can last for days or even weeks.
Symptoms of schizophrenia
In addition to the above, the patient may have the following symptoms of schizophrenia:
Illusion – The patient may believe that they are being abused. Alternatively, they may feel that they have extraordinary abilities and gifts.
Hallucinations – especially vocal hearing (auditory hallucinations), but hallucinations may include visual (seeing what is not there) or hallucinations associated with any other sensitive system.
Disorder Anxiety disorder – When speaking, a person may jump from one subject to another for reasonable reasons. The patient’s speech is blurred and impossible to understand.
Motivation Lack of Motivation (Evolution) – The patient loses their drive. They give up daily activities, such as washing and cooking.
Emotions are weak expressions of emotion – they may not respond to happy or sad events, or may react inappropriately.
Social detachment – When a schizophrenia patient detached from society it is because of they believe that someone is going to harm them.
Illness is unknown about illness (also referred to as “poor insight”) – because hallucinations and confusion seem so real to the patient, many do not believe they are ill.
Cognitive impairment – The patient’s ability to set up mind in one thing , remember things, deciding ahead and organize is affected and communication becomes more difficult.
Patients with symptoms normally can not seek medical help on their own. Most of the time family member or friend who seeks medical help.
Risk factors for catatonic schizophrenia
Risk factors like other types of schizophrenia, include:
Genetics – People with a family history of schizophrenia are at higher risk of developing it on their own.
Viral Infections – Some recent studies have shown that viral infections can lead a child to develop schizophrenia.
Fetal malnutrition – when the fetus affected by malnutrition during pregnancy, the risk of schizophrenia is more.
Early Life pressure – Acute pressureearly in life can lead to the development of schizophrenia. Stressful experiences seem just before schizophrenia occurs.
Childhood abuse or injury.
Birth age of parents – Older parents have a higher risk of giving birth to children with schizophrenia.
Medications – The use of drugs that affect the mind during puberty
Medications – The use of drugs that affect the mind during puberty increases the risk of schizophrenia.
Causes of catatonic schizophrenia
No one is sure what the exact causes Studies indicate that while most forms of schizophrenia are caused by brain dysfunction, we do not know why brain dysfunction occurs. Presumably, it is caused by a combination of genetics and environmental triggers, such as stress.
Experts believe that dipamine imbalance, a neurotransmitter, is involved in the onset of schizophrenia. They believe that this imbalance is probably caused by genes that make someone susceptible to illness. Some researchers have suggested that levels of other neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, may be involved.
Multiple tests will help doctors to identify or diagnose the disease .
The patient will be suggested a medical and psychological test to help diagnose the disease; These may include:
Exam Physical examination – The patient’s height, weight, heart rate, blood pressure and temperature are checked. The doctor will listen to the heart and lungs and examine the stomach.
CBC (full blood count) – Alcohol and drugs as well as thyroid function testing.
MRI or CT scan – The purpose is to find any abnormalities in the structure of the brain.
EEG (electroencephalogram) – to test the function of the brain.
Psychological assessment – A psychiatrist will ask the patient (if possible) about their thoughts, feelings and behavior patterns. They will discuss the signs, when initiated ,severity and how affect the patient’s life. They will also ask if the patient has any thoughts of harming himself or others.
It’s a long time process to diagnose accurately .
Treatment options for catatonic schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a condition that lasts a lifetime, although may not have catatonic symptoms. Schizophrenia patients are treated for whole life Even the signs have disappeared and the patient think they are better. The treatment is normally as same as for all types of schizophrenia.
Methods vary counting on a spread of things , including the severity and sort of symptoms, the patient’s health, and their age.
Benzodiazepines – This class of medicine acts as a tranquilizer and is usually used for catatonic type schizophrenia . Fast syringes can be administered quickly and intimately (by an intravenous injection). There is a risk of dependence if used for a long time. The dose may vary for several days or weeks.
Barbiturates – These drugs are referred to as depression or analgesics. They suppress the central nervous system. Their actions differ from mild to total anesthesia. Barbiturates quickly relieve the symptoms of catatonia. There is a risk of dependency if used for an extended time. This drug is used less frequently in the treatment than in barbiturates.
Anti-depressants and mood-altering drugs– the patients sometimes may suffer from other mental disorder like depression.
ECT (Electroconvulsive Therapy) – This is a procedure where an electric current is transmitted through the brain to produce controlled convulsions (convulsions). ECT is employed for catatonic patients who haven’t skilled medications or other treatments. Side effects can include STM loss.
Hospitalization – This may be required during critical episodes. Patients are safer in a hospital environment; They are more likely to get proper nutrition, sleep and hygiene, as well as proper treatment.
Psychotherapy – major part of treatment for patients with schizophrenia. However, psychotherapy may be useful, but if the symptoms are severe, psychotherapy may not be applicable .
Social Attachment and vocational training – it makes the patient live independently – is a crucial a part of patient recovery. The therapist can help the patient learn good hygiene, prepare nutritious meals, and communicate better. Work, housing and joining self-help groups can also be helpful.
Consent (adherence) – Consent or adherence to medicine means taking medicine at the right time and in the right dose. Unfortunately, lack of consent is a major problem for schizophrenia patients.
Complications of catatonic schizophrenia
Untreated this disease may lead to health, financial, behavioral and legal problems . these problems can affect the whole life of a patient .
- Depression, suicidal thinkings, suicidal attitudes – a significant number of patients with schizophrenia have periods of depression.
- Lack of nutrition.
- Hygiene problems.
- Substance addiction – it can be alcohol, prescription drugs, and illegal drugs.
- Can’t be employment into job, resulting in poverty and homelessness.
- Serious family disterbances
- Unable to study or attend school and other educational institutions.
- Engaged himself into crime.
- Smoking-related diseases.